The United States must use all elements of its national power to support the development and execution of an appropriate Pakistani counterinsurgency strategy to eliminate Taliban and al Qaeda sanctuaries in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan. This paper describes the problem of terrorist sanctuaries in the FATA in the context of forces that shape the area: Pashtun society, the state and counter-states, and globalization. After analyzing the problem using established counterinsurgency models, the author develops an appropriate strategy for success. Pakistan's counterinsurgency strategy must provide both security and targeted development at the village level using and reinforcing existing Pashtun tribal structure. The American Ambassador, supported by a robust country team, USCENTCOM, and other agency experts must develop an appropriate supporting counterinsurgency plan based on this strategy. This plan must be expeditiously approved, resourced, and supported by the interagency, the President, and Congress, and then implemented by, through, and with the Pakistani government to be effective.

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